Android Versions: A Timeline From Cupcake To Oreo

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google with the first ever version unveiled in 2007. Ever since, it has become the most dominant operating systems in the world with a total of 15 updates in all.

One unique feature of the android operating system is that each  version is code-named after a dessert and released in an alphabetical order.

A timeline of all Android version till date are listed.

Android 1.5 

The code name is ‘Cupcake’. It preceded the 1.0 and 1.1 versions. It added few new features and improvements that we now take for granted, such as the ability to upload videos to YouTube and a way for a phone’s screen display to automatically rotate to the right positions.

Android 1.6 

It was launched in September 2009 with updates to support for carriers that used CDMA-based networks amongst other new features. Its code name is ‘Donut’

Android 2.0-2.1 

This version, Eclair was the first to add Text-to-Speech support, and also introduced live wallpapers, multiple account support, and Google Maps navigation, among many other new features and improvements.

Android 2.2 

The Froyo version was launched in May 2010. The name is a short form for “frozen yogurt’. It introduced new features which includes Wi-Fi mobile hotspot functions, push notifications via Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, flash support and more.

Android 2.3

Android 2.3 code name is ‘Gingerbread’. It was launched in September 2010 and laid the groundwork for the selfie, by adding in support for multiple cameras and video chat support within Google Talk.

Android 3.0

It is code-named ‘Honeycomb’. Honeycomb was introduced in February 2011 for installation only on tablets and other mobile devices with larger displays than smartphones.

Android 4.0 

It is code-named ‘Ice Cream Sandwich’. This version of Android combined many of the features of the tablet-only Honeycomb version with the smartphone oriented Gingerbread. Other features includes support for all on-screen buttons, swipe gestures to dismiss notifications and browser tabs, and the ability to monitor your data usage over mobile and WiFi.

Android 4.1-4.3 

The new features from the ‘Jelly Bean’ version included new notification features that showed more content or action buttons. External Displays and Miracast also gained support, as did HDR photography. At the moment, about 6.9 percent of all Android products use a build with Jelly Bean.

Android 4.4 KitKat

The name of Android 4.4 was code-named ‘KitKat’. This version was optimized to run on smartphones that had as little as 512 MB of RAM. This allowed phone makers to get the latest version of Android and have it installed on much cheaper handset.

Android 5.0 Lollipop

The 5.0 version was launched in 2014 as ‘Lollipop’ being the code name. It came with new official support for dual-SIM, HD Voice calls, and Device Protection to keep thieves locked out of your phone even after a factory reset.

Android 6.0 Marshmallow

The 6.0 version was released in 2015 and code-named ‘Marshmallow’. It included features such as an easy shortcut to smart answers with Now on Tap, battery life that can last longer and new app permissions amongst others.

Android 7.0 

Version 7.0 of Google’s mobile operating system launched in 2016 as ‘Nougat’. It came with a number of changes like switching to a new JIT compiler to speed up apps, supported the Vulkan API for faster 3D rendering, and enabled OEMs to support its DayDream Virtual Reality platform.

Android 8.0

This latest version was announced in March 2017 and named after a brand of cookie ‘Oreo’. Android Oreo brings in lots of visual changes to the settings menu, along with native support for picture-in-picture mode, notification channels, new autofill APIs for better management of passwords and fill data, and much more.

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Introducing The Frightful Five

Kehinde Richard Fashua

They are the biggest tech companies, Silicon Valley gods and the five most valuable public companies in the world. The name “Frightful five” was coined by a New York Times writer to refer to Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Microsoft, and Google.

What makes them frightful, first of all, is the fact that they are very big and they play huge roles in our everyday lives, societies and economies at large.

Although, the tag has been met with criticism citing instances of past tech giants such as IBM and Hewlett-Packard who were all labeled to be victims of ‘creative destruction of an innovator’s dilemma’ – a situation which occurs when new technologies causes great firms to fail.

In no particular order, they are:

Amazon

Amazon is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company and by Jeff Bezos in 1994.

Its brand value and brand revenue stands at $54.1 Billion and $133 Billion respectively.

 

Apple

Apple Incorporation designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. The company’s hardware products include the fashionable iPhone Smartphones, the iPad tablet computer amongst other Apple brands. It was founded in 1976 by the Late Steve Jobs and his fellow colleagues.

Its brand value and brand revenue stands at $170 Billion and $214.2 Billion respectively.

 

Facebook

Facebook is an online social media and social networking service company. It was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students

Its brand value and brand revenue stands at $73.5 Billion and $25.6 Billion respectively.

Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation is a multinational technology company which develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. It was founded by Paul Allen and Bill Gates in 1975.

Its brand value and brand revenue stands at $87 Billion and $85.3 Billion respectively.

 

Alphabet Inc. aka Google

Google is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products. It was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University, in California.

Its brand value and brand revenue stands at $101.8 Billion and $80.5 Billion respectively.

THE FLOW OF TIME

By Praise Etoh

It was a Thursday morning, 7:30a.m. I felt too lazy to drive my car, so my son booked a taxi. In five minutes, the taxi reached at the entrance gate, waiting for my arrival. I just saw the cab number and entered inside the car. I was so busy that I didn’t pay any attention towards the driver. I was searching for an important paper from my leather bag, so instantly said, ‘Please, go quick! I’m in a hurry!’

The voice came, ‘Yes, Sir!’

I was literally surprised when I heard a female voice! I stopped my work for a second and looked at the driver. The driver was a young lady. Maybe, around thirty or thirty-two! For the first time, I saw a lady, driving a taxi!

The car was running on the national high-way towards the destination. It was quite a distance from my home. She was driving perfectly well. Hundred times, I had travelled in taxi, but never I saw any lady, driving a taxi! I didn’t know, why I became so enthusiastic to know why she had chosen this profession. I started the conversation,’If you don’t mind, can I ask you some questions?’

‘Yes, Sir! No problem.’

‘I guess, you are well qualified!’

‘Yes, Sir!I have completed my education. I have done my MBA course.

‘Oh, wow!!! Why did you then choose this profession, instead of going for an academic career?’

I could see her face in the rear view mirror. She smiled and the way she expressed her views, I was really amazed!

Very politely, she said, ‘Driving was my passion from my childhood, sir! Of course I do respect each and every job. In this case, at least I fulfilled my desire! I love driving! I don’t mind for big or small job. I wanted a job where I can get satisfaction. I got offers from m.n.c but this one I preferred because I like it! I know, I can’t get enough money out of it, yet as I told you ‘I love driving’!That’s it!’

‘But, are you not scared of any danger? You know, there are some people who create problems for ladies.”

With a smile, she answered,’We can not give up our living just because of a few trouble makers! By the way, which zone is danger free, Sir? Once we are out of our homes, we must prepared to face problems.’

‘Of course, you are absolutely right!!! Nowhere is safe, but yet…’ before I completed my speech, she chuckled and said,’Sir! As long as I am getting humble and gentle passengers, I have no problem but every time I may not be that lucky! If ever that awkward situation comes, I will see! Why should I give off my hope just for an uncertainty?’

Frankly speaking, I was totally flattered with her bold answers and especially her brave heart and courage!

Within our conversation, we already reached at the destination. I was so delighted that I couldn’t resist myself, said,’May God bless you, my dear!!! I am proud of your noble thoughts! Keep going!’

She smiled at me with gratitude and slowly pushed the accelerator to move forward. I had enough work to do but unconsciously my mind was fully occupied with her answers and I thought,’Truly, how fast ‘Time’ is changing! There was a time when girls were choosing only prestigious jobs, once they were highly qualified but how easily this girl defined the boundary of ‘job’ within two words ‘self satisfaction’! Let the rest of the world deeply understand the importance and value of ‘the flow of time’!

(C)Ajiri Etoh

Attend A Free Industry-Wide Professional Course On Anti Corruption

In commemoration of the International Anti-corruption Day 2017, the Young Anti-corruption Enthusiasts in Sub Saharan Africa is organizing a Free Industry-Wide Professional Course On Anti Corruption.

This is free industry-wide professional course on anti-corruption for Sub Saharan African economy. This edition is exclusively designed for young graduates and professionals in Nigeria to educate them on how to join the good fight of anti-corruption across the nation.

The following are the topics that would be addressed at the event:

Session 1:

Basic anti-corruption education.
Facilitator: Akindele Fayombo CCEP-I

Session 2: 
Nigeria Now: What corruption is doing to us and why we must take action.
Facilitator: Adedotun Akintola-Idowu

Session 3: 
Standing for integrity in the midst of a corrupt system.
Facilitator: Obaromine Ohwojero

Session 4: 
Creating and leading an anticorruption dream team.
Facilitator: Tolu’ Sobande

Time: 10:00am 

Venue: Rita’s Events & Suites.
12/14, charity Road, New Oko-oba, Agege, Lagos Mainland.

For Enquiries: Call Remi @ 07014828039

Let’s be United Against Corruption.

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