Political Participation and Role of Citizens

Kehinde Fashua

Political participation is used to describe actions taken by citizens of a country to influence the outcome of political issues via participation in political processes. It provides an opportunity for electorates to influence public decisions and to be a part of the democratic decision making process.

It is noteworthy that the outcome of any political process in a democratic setting is highly dependent on the awareness and positive involvement of the citizenry in civic and political activities.

Political participation in Nigeria is yet to live up to expectation even as political apathy holds sway across the nation. Election statistics over the years has further shown the extent of political apathy in Nigeria. Sadly, the consequence is a continuous upsurge in incompetent political office holders and more opportunity for rigging during election.

The role of the citizens in political participation cannot be overemphasized. For us in Nigeria, it involves a total overhaul of our political philosophy and psychology. Citizens need to know that they are obliged to participate in governance across all levels by voting during elections, joining a political party and encouraging someone to vote.

Other forms of political participation includes the act of attending political rallies, sensitization meeting such as the ‘One Voice Nigeria’ movement or even signing a petition at constituency level both online and offline.

Further alternative kinds of political participation include; protesting, writing letters, blogging about political issues, donating resources, volunteering in any capacity, vying for a political post, organizing and attending town hall meetings with political representatives.

Fortunately, with the 68 political parties in Nigeria according to INEC, the platform for political participation has been made even more possible.

Likewise, the rise in technology and social media can be leveraged as regards contributing, monitoring, reporting, sensitizing and even signing online petitions on issues that have to do with political office holders. The prospect is unlimited.

Conclusively, there is no better time other than now to rewrite our wrongs by reshaping the future of Nigeria even as many things depend on us as the electorates. As crucial as it is, the fundamental role of citizens in politics can be included in our curriculum and lifestyle so as to ensure a political-sustainable development.


Avoid That Traffic Jam With Google Traffic Map

An average Lagosian will always complain about traffic on major highways forgetting that most mega-cities of the world like Lagos are characterized by traffic congestion. The only difference is the complexities or availability of multi-modal transport system.

Meanwhile, Google traffic maps now have a service which is not new anyway to those of us already obsessed with maps and other navigation guides.

On your map, you might have noticed some colored lines. These colored lines represent real time traffic conditions on the road.


The Red Line: This dreaded line indicates heavy traffic and such route should be avoided for an alternative route.

The Yellow Line: When you see a yellow line, it means that traffic is moving slowly.

The Green Line: This line is the most suitable for the eyes as it indicate a free flow of traffic. As a result, always watch out for that green line while navigating.

The Grey Line:This is an indication that there is no traffic information available at the time, though very rare to see.

The Red-Black: This line on your map indicates an extremely slow or stopped traffic but at least better than the red line.

So, if you are wondering how the app perfectly predicts traffic situation, it is made possible by triangulating and crowd-sourcing Smartphone users through their location (GPS) data and then transmitting back to server to generate a real time traffic update.

Now you know, so next time you are on the road, probably going home after the day’s work, do not forget to look out for these helpful colored lines.

Most Popular Dog Breeds

Dogs are simply adorable. No wonder they are referred to as man’s best friend.  A saying linked to their long history of closeness and loyalty with humans. Furthermore, when it comes to animal companions, a dog really is man’s best friend owing to the fact that they exhibit a unique blend of attributes and characteristics that other animals do not.  

According to dogtime.com, there are over 198 dog breeds, some of which are presented below according to popularity.

German Shepherd

The German Shepherd is an intelligent dog usually trained as a guide and assistance work for the handicapped, police military service, search and rescue, drug detection amongst other competitive tasks.

The Doberman Pinscher

Popularly referred to as Doberman, is easily noticeable by its athletic appearance and characteristic cropped ears and short tail. Doberman is believed to be a mixture of many dog breeds including the Rottweiler, Black and Tan Terrier, and German Pinscher.



Rottweilers were originally  bred to drive cattle to market. Later they were used to pull carts for butchers due to their robust and powerful physical appearance, The Rottweiler is happiest when given a job to perform.



Bulldogs originally were used to drive cattle to market and to compete in a bloody sport called bull baiting- which involves pitting dogs against bulls. Bull dogs are muscular and hefty with wrinkled face and a distinctive pushed-in nose.

Pit Bull

The Pit Bull is a muscular companion and family or nanny dog bred due to their gentleness around children. They have a brick-like head, which is especially broad between the cheeks to house their powerful jaws.


The Maltese is a friendly, gentle and fearless pet dog breed. His glamorous white coat gives him a look of haughty nobility. A Maltese is a sprightly, vigorous dog that excels not only as a companion but also as a therapy dog and competitor in dog sports.


The Chihuahua pet dog breed is known for his small size and jumping ability. The Chihuahua is fully capable of competing in dog sports. He loves nothing more than being with his owners. As well, this breed requires expert veterinary attention in areas such as birthing and dental care.


This is a sleek and athletic dog breed. The Dalmatian is noted for its unique black spotted coats. As charming in life as in film, he goes from gallant to goofy to gallant again in the blink of an eye, and loves to be a part of everything his family does.


Beagles are small, compact, and hardy dog breeds. Being hounds (hunting dogs), they can also be stubborn and require patient, creative training techniques. They have powerful sense of smell and they are never happier than when following an interesting scent.

Labrador Retriever

Retrievers were bred primarily to retrieve items and return them without damage. A Retriever is man’s most favorite disability assistance and America’s most popular breed.

So, whichever dog breed you have, it is easy to discover that unique faithful trait in them.

Android Versions: A Timeline From Cupcake To Oreo

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google with the first ever version unveiled in 2007. Ever since, it has become the most dominant operating systems in the world with a total of 15 updates in all.

One unique feature of the android operating system is that each  version is code-named after a dessert and released in an alphabetical order.

A timeline of all Android version till date are listed.

Android 1.5 

The code name is ‘Cupcake’. It preceded the 1.0 and 1.1 versions. It added few new features and improvements that we now take for granted, such as the ability to upload videos to YouTube and a way for a phone’s screen display to automatically rotate to the right positions.

Android 1.6 

It was launched in September 2009 with updates to support for carriers that used CDMA-based networks amongst other new features. Its code name is ‘Donut’

Android 2.0-2.1 

This version, Eclair was the first to add Text-to-Speech support, and also introduced live wallpapers, multiple account support, and Google Maps navigation, among many other new features and improvements.

Android 2.2 

The Froyo version was launched in May 2010. The name is a short form for “frozen yogurt’. It introduced new features which includes Wi-Fi mobile hotspot functions, push notifications via Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, flash support and more.

Android 2.3

Android 2.3 code name is ‘Gingerbread’. It was launched in September 2010 and laid the groundwork for the selfie, by adding in support for multiple cameras and video chat support within Google Talk.

Android 3.0

It is code-named ‘Honeycomb’. Honeycomb was introduced in February 2011 for installation only on tablets and other mobile devices with larger displays than smartphones.

Android 4.0 

It is code-named ‘Ice Cream Sandwich’. This version of Android combined many of the features of the tablet-only Honeycomb version with the smartphone oriented Gingerbread. Other features includes support for all on-screen buttons, swipe gestures to dismiss notifications and browser tabs, and the ability to monitor your data usage over mobile and WiFi.

Android 4.1-4.3 

The new features from the ‘Jelly Bean’ version included new notification features that showed more content or action buttons. External Displays and Miracast also gained support, as did HDR photography. At the moment, about 6.9 percent of all Android products use a build with Jelly Bean.

Android 4.4 KitKat

The name of Android 4.4 was code-named ‘KitKat’. This version was optimized to run on smartphones that had as little as 512 MB of RAM. This allowed phone makers to get the latest version of Android and have it installed on much cheaper handset.

Android 5.0 Lollipop

The 5.0 version was launched in 2014 as ‘Lollipop’ being the code name. It came with new official support for dual-SIM, HD Voice calls, and Device Protection to keep thieves locked out of your phone even after a factory reset.

Android 6.0 Marshmallow

The 6.0 version was released in 2015 and code-named ‘Marshmallow’. It included features such as an easy shortcut to smart answers with Now on Tap, battery life that can last longer and new app permissions amongst others.

Android 7.0 

Version 7.0 of Google’s mobile operating system launched in 2016 as ‘Nougat’. It came with a number of changes like switching to a new JIT compiler to speed up apps, supported the Vulkan API for faster 3D rendering, and enabled OEMs to support its DayDream Virtual Reality platform.

Android 8.0

This latest version was announced in March 2017 and named after a brand of cookie ‘Oreo’. Android Oreo brings in lots of visual changes to the settings menu, along with native support for picture-in-picture mode, notification channels, new autofill APIs for better management of passwords and fill data, and much more.

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